SAGBAMAN: Academic Journal of Arts & Humanities <p><strong>SAGBAMAN: Academic Journal of Arts &amp; Humanities </strong><strong>ISSN: 2955-0890(P); </strong><strong>2955-0904(O) </strong>is a bi-annual, peer-reviewed and promising open access journal of the School of Arts &amp; Social Sciences of the Isaac Jasper Boro College of Education, Sagbama. It publishes original research, creative work, and critical discourse on traditional, contemporary, and trending issues in arts and humanities studies.</p> en-US SAGBAMAN: Academic Journal of Arts & Humanities 2955-0890 A CONTRASTIVE STUDY OF ENGLISH AND IZHIA DEMONSTRATIVES <p>This paper investigates the syntactic relation between the Izhia demonstratives and that of the English language, and examines how the demonstratives in both languages can enter into relationship with the nouns to form a determiner phrase. The study uses the Contrastive analysis and the Determiner phrase Hypotheses as effective tools as well as the analytic method for identifying, predicting and generalizing syntactic structural similarities and dissimilarities, which may pose difficulties in second language learning or ease second language learning. Data used in this study were obtained through oral interviews. Demonstratives in the two languages include; this, that, these and those from the English perspective and ye, yehu, ndu ye and ndu yehu from the Izhia perspective. The findings reveal that Demonstratives in both languages are functionally simillar but structurally dissimillar, as the English&nbsp; demonstratives occur only in pre-position in their DP structures while in Izhia the reverse is the case as the demonstratives can appear<br>in both pre-and post-positions in their DPs, and such is acceptable and grammatical in the language. On this premise, it is realized that the knowledge of the dissimilarities in the structures of the L1 and the L2 can enhance proficiency and good performance in the teaching and learning of English language as a second language. The study therefore recommends that there is need to design a teaching hypothesis or mechanism that will draw the attention of the L2 learners to the differences in the structure of both languages to enable them achieve international inteligibility.&nbsp;</p> Chibueze Egbe Aleke Copyright (c) 2023 2023-02-15 2023-02-15 1 2 1 7 TRANSLATION PREDICAMENTS AMONG IGBO-ENGLISH BILINGUALS <p>This paper investigates translation predicaments among the Igbo-English bilingual. The method adopted by the paper is analytic. The paper argued that there is lack of reproducing natural equivalent of the message in the source language into the receptors' language in translation among the Igbo-English bilinguals because of the syntactic, semantic and phonological structural differences between the two languages. The paper highlighted meaning of translation and different kinds of translations, the syntactic, semantic and phonological, structural differences between Igbo and English languages. The paper revealed that Igbo language is the compendium of Igbo cognition. Thus, the structural differences between English and Igbo languages be-clouds precision in translation among the Igbo-English bilingual interpretations of Igbo world and projection of outlook to life.&nbsp;</p> Matthew Aleke Copyright (c) 2023 2023-02-15 2023-02-15 1 2 8 17 IMPACT OF LANGUAGE LABORATORY IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ORAL ENGLISH IN NIGERIAN SCHOOLS <p>This study investigated the impact of language laboratory in the teaching and learning of oral English in Nigerian Schools. It is regrettable and pitiable that language laboratory is not effectively utilized in the learning of oral English in schools today. The study highlighted the necessity of having a language laboratory and its appropriate usage of it to achieve its targeted learning goal. Language laboratory create a great impact in promoting learning of oral English when used; and highlighted the challenges of the use of language laboratory such as instructors lack of technical knowhow in operating devices, cost of installation and maintenance procedures. Conclusively, it is pertinent to have a language laboratory in all language teaching schools, and be utilized appropriately to actualize an impressive and effective delivery of instruction in oral English. On this premise, it was suggested that language laboratories s should be available in order to enhance the teaching and learning of English in schools; and government should<br>provide facilities for the available language laboratories in tertiary institutions in order to foster the teaching and learning process.</p> Ebiyeladoh Laura Ajoko, Samuel Christopher Stella Ejealo Benamaisia Copyright (c) 2023 2023-02-15 2023-02-15 1 2 18 26 THE FUNCTION OF ALLEGORY IN NIGERIAN DRAMA: A STUDY OF AGORO'S THE PRISON PLAYS <p>Nigerian drama, apart from mirroring the society, recording events, reinterpreting history, portraying the communion between human beings and cosmic powers, has the vital task of correcting the society through emphasis on creating awareness on different social issues, and allegory which is a literary technique functions as the instrument used in the expression and discussion of these social issues as direct finger pointing and name-calling, might lead to backlashes and even court cases. This is why the content in Nigerian drama is always holding double barrel meaning due to the plural function of allegory in Nigerian drama. Already, studies on the discus of allegory and its functions in Nigerian drama abound, but most of these studies do not acknowledge the function and role of allegory in Saviour Nathan A. Agoro's The Prison Plays, and nothing is said about them in the discus of allegory in Nigerian drama. It is on this<br>premise, that the study is focused on revealing the function of allegory in the above dramas; how these dramas are used as evangelical tools, and also as a medium through which societal ills are highlighted and corrected. The study through its literary and textual&nbsp; analytic approach, defines allegory and shows that allegory in drama is a potent force or weapon with which to suggest a decent and high level of morals in our society, and plays like The Prison Plays through the functional role of allegory are tools for the communication of the need for evangelism and salvation from the power of sin and wickedness. The study recommends that Nigerian playwrights should continue to use this literary tool (allegory) to make their society better by discussing social ills and proffering solu????on to them, as allegory function as an effective weapon for social reforms.&nbsp;</p> WILSON MUMEYA FIDELIS Copyright (c) 2023 2023-02-15 2023-02-15 1 2 27 38 THE IMPACT OF CHRISTIAN RELIGION ON AFRICAN PHILOSOPHY <p>This paper investigates the impact of Christian religion on African philosophy. The method adopted for this paper is analytic. The paper argued that every culture has its own peculiar way of reflecting fundamental ques????ons bothering on human person, their experiences of physical and metaphysical realities. Therefore, our different cultures is what accounts for the diverse philosophic frame around the<br>globe. African culture is a religious suffused one and African philosophy started as an attempt towards the justification of African traditional religious beliefs and morals. Christianity on the other hand is more than a system of religious belief. It has generated a culture that have been handed down from generation to generation. The European colonial Christian missionaries' refusal to acknowledge the genuineness of African traditional religion and forced them to adopt Christian religion broke the very backbone of African cognition towards African traditional religion which is the structure that informed African philosophic reflections. This state of affairs turned African philosophy into a platform that is leveraging on Christian religious cultural thinking blockchain of understanding, interpretations and projection of outlook to life. Thus, African philosophy must be open to history; a history that is interpreted in the light of African culture with a frame of mind that is free from foreign mental or spiritual construct and interpretations that is free from the lenses of a borrowed and effete foreign ontological categories, or a total package that comes from outside Africa. It is by so doing that African philosophy becomes meaningful to people because it makes their lives and culture come alive and arises from the interactions of their daily existence with the reality on the ground.&nbsp;</p> Matthew Aleke Copyright (c) 2023 2023-02-15 2023-02-15 1 2 39 47 INSECURITY CHALLENGES: A STUDY OF LECTURERS' PERCEIVED SOLUTIONS TO INSECURITY IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA <p>This study investigated Insecurity Challenges: A Study of Lecturers' Perceived Solutions to Insecurity in Ogun State, Nigeria. The study adopted qualitative research approach and descriptive research design. Lecturers that taught Social Studies at Colleges of Education formed the population for this study. Six lecturers were purposively selected from two Colleges of Education in Ogun State, that is, three lecturers from each College of Education. Those lecturers were selected based on their deep knowledge on the contemporaries' issues in Social Studies in which security issue is among. The instrument for this study was structured open interview for lecturers' perception on solution to insecurity in Nigeria. The result revealed that there is need for decentralization of the police force to tackle local insecurity issues on time and there must be adequate funding to equip security personnel with necessary security equipment. It is therefore recommended that government must see the need for decentralization of police force to address security issues at local level.</p> Olusoga Rasheed OTELAJA Oluwaseun OYEWOLE Copyright (c) 2023 2023-01-30 2023-01-30 1 2 48 51 THE INFLUENCE OF DA'WAH ACTIVITIES ON CONTEMPORARY MUSLIM COMMUNITIES <p>Muslims in the east and west face numerous challenges when it comes to sustaining their way of life, keeping it up, and evangelizing other people about their beliefs. The methods and tac????cs used to achieve the objec????ve of the dissemina????on of faith (Da'wah) can be blamed for these crises. These methods are full of mistakes on our part and, on the one hand, do not take the Quran and the Sunnah into due considera????on. We need to revise or restructure our Da'awah Methodology in response to these nega????ve ideas, a????empts, and concep????ons that are presented by our Muslim brothers and sisters and that contradict the revealed laws and the actual situa????on. These regula????ons must be tenable, per????nent, and objec????ve to be in accordance with the Quran. Such methods and beliefs maintained by Muslims in the area of Da'awah have been cri????cally analyzed by several contemporary experts. These experts discussed<br>their models and approaches, all of which con????nue to be effec????ve, viable, and per????nent and are essen????ally founded on Quranic insights. If brought to light, the characteris????cs of the Prophe????c Da'awah Methodology that a????est to acceptance, modera????on, tolerance, diversity, sympathy, and other universal character principles are s????ll relevant today. To help the Ummah avoid divisions, profligate thought, discord, and deforma????on in creed and behavior, this paper explores the significance of Quranic Da'awah methodology and its reflec????ons with the recommenda????ons put forth in light of models/approaches shared by contemporary Muslim scholars like Maulana Islahi and Dr. Alwani.&nbsp;</p> Mustafa Usman Usman Umar Shall Sabo Mohammed Copyright (c) 2023 2023-02-15 2023-02-15 1 2 52 57 UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW IN THE RESOLUTION OF THE CONFLICT BETWEEN NIGERIA AND CAMEROON OVER THE BAKASSI PENINSULA <p>This study investigated the role international law played in the resolution of the territorial conflict between Nigeria and Cameroon over the Bakassi Peninsula from 1994 to 2008. Employing the use of primary and secondary source materials, it argues that even though the ICJ's ruling of October 2002 did not elicit direct and immediate compliance and resolution of the dispute, the law in the form of the<br>judgment served as a guide for all subsequent efforts at resolution. Indeed, all diplomatic measures applied were tailored along the lines of the Court's ruling, leading to the amicable resolution of the conflict, thereby once again bringing to the fore the continuous role of the law in relations between states in the international arena.&nbsp;</p> Ekpotuatin Charles ARIYE Copyright (c) 2023 2023-01-30 2023-01-30 1 2 58 70 NIGERIA'S FOREIGN POLICY AND THE CHALLENGES OF NATIONAL SECURITY <p>Since 2009 when Boko Haram emerged as a religious sect in Borno State and rapidly spread to other states in the Northeast and&nbsp; beyond, the security of Nigeria has been heavily threatened as never before in recent history. Thousands of people have been killed in the spiralling conflict. Gun-wielding bandits have also emerged, wreaking havoc in many parts of the country even as kidnapping for ransom has become common in all parts of the country. Herder-farmer clashes resulting in several deaths are also a constant<br>security challenge particularly in the North central and other parts of the country. Ethnic militias have also sprang-up in the South, making demands on the country and issuing threats of secession thereby causing fear and contribu????ng to the state of general insecurity in the country. These mul????farious security challenges have made life unsafe and living a constant nightmare in the country. Various findings and prescriptions to resolve these escalating security problems have defied practical solutions. This paper explores the use of foreign policy in tackling the security problems of the country. Classical liberalism was employed as the theoretical framework in this study. Secondary sources were relied upon as the source of data. Data were sourced from books, internet sources, journals and newspaper publications. Data collected were analysed and logical conclusions drawn. The development of an effective foreign policy and its application in securing international partnerships against terrorism and other security challenges of the country was recommended.&nbsp;</p> Ukiyedeikimie Ugo Moses Copyright (c) 2023 2023-02-15 2023-02-15 1 2 71 81 PUBLIC SECTORAL ALLOCATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA. <p>This study investigated empirical analysis of government expenditure and economic growth in Nigeria spanning from 1980 to 2020. Data for the study were obtained from Central Bank) of Nigeria (CBN statstical bulletin. The dependent variable of the study is the Real Gross Domestic product (RGDP) as a proxy for economic growth while the independent variables are, education expenditure (EDUC), health expenditure (HLT), defense expenditure (DFC), construction expenditure (COE), water resource (WTR), and transport and communication expenditure (TCE). The variables were subjected to unit root test using Augmented Dickey Fuller unit root test. The&nbsp; ADF unit root test revealed a mixed order of integration. This means that DFC and TCE are stationary at level 1(0) while, RGDP, EDUC, HLT, WTR and COE are stationary after first difference 1(1). Based on this the study adopted Auto-regressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) model to ascertain the long and short-run relationship as well as the speed of adjustment. The auto-regressive distributive lag (ARDL) test showed that there is no long-run relationship among the variables using the bound test but the short-run result reported that except water resource (WTR) expenditure that showed insignificant relationship with RGDP, all other study variables, EDUC, DFC, HLT and TCE are positive and significant either at the current year or previous year period. Based on the findings it is recommended that<br>the budgetary allocation of the country should be increased to enable the citizens have good drinking water.</p> SOPHIA MAIMUNA JOHN PETER MONDAY Copyright (c) 2023 2023-02-15 2023-02-15 1 2 82 93 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIAN AND IVORY COAST <p>This study investigate comparative analysis of international trade and economic growth in Nigeria and Ivory Coast covering 1981 to 2020. Data for the study were obtained from World Bank indicators the study formulated two model (Nigeria &amp; Ivory Coast) which were subjected to unit root test, using the Augmented Dickey fuller unit root test. The ADF test revealed a mixed order of integration. This means that some of the variables were stationary at levels 1(0) while others became stationary after first difference (1). The scenario necessitated the use of Autoregressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) model. Thus the result revealed that the regression estimate of exchange rate (EXR) and real gross domestic product (RGDP), is negative and significant to influence real gross domestic product in Nigeria and Ivory Coast. Also, it was also revealed that foreign direct investment (FDI) have a negative but significant relationship with real gross domestic product (RGDP) in Nigeria at the previous year's lag period. However, the regression result for Ivory Coast revealed that there is negative and statistically insignificant relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and real gross domestic product (RGDP) both in the previous and second year period. The coefficient of export trade in Nigeria revealed a positive relationship between the variables both in the current and previous year period in the short-run but is insignificant to dissemble real gross domestic product (RGDP) while the regression result of Ivory Coast showed a positive but insignificant correlation with real gross domestic product (RGDP). Similarly, the result of import trade revealed a positive but negligible to influence real gross domestic product (RGDP) in Nigeria, while the result for Ivory Coast indicates a positive but insignificant relationship between import trade (IMPT) and real gross domestic product (RGDP). The study recommends among others that government should take measures<br>that would make the mining and agricultural sub-sector attractive. Because they are the feeders and buffers of other sectors of the economy.&nbsp;</p> Patimi EBIKESEYE ThankGod TONYE Copyright (c) 2023 2023-02-15 2023-02-15 1 2 94 112