Guidelines for Authors


Please follow these guidelines when preparing papers for submission to Sagbama Journal of Humanities (SAGBAMAN). This will assist us in producing the journal more speedily and efficiently.

Submitting Manuscripts

As previously indicated all manuscripts should ONLY be submitted electronically in Microsoft® Office Word or later format via email to the SAGBAMAN Secretariat. Please note that this submission should consist of various separate electronic files: One electronic file consisting of all author information only and another separate electronic file consisting of the body of the manuscript.

 ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT (Author Information)

In this separate electronic document, supply the following details in full for all authors (i.e. including co-authors):

  1. First name and surname, e.g. Lindi Ngwenya, Carl D Anschutz
  2. Designation/position, e.g. Senior Lecturer, Professor. (Note that in the case of a student author the level must be specified, i.e. PhD/Doctoral student or Master’s student.)
  • Programme/department/organisation/institution, e.g. Faculty/School of Accountancy, University of Africa, etc,.
  1. Full contact numbers (mobile and landline) and fax numbers and e-mail address.
  2. Where there is more than one author, highlight the corresponding author’s name with an asterisk (*) and email address.
  3. ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT (Manuscript Body)

All manuscripts should be submitted in the following sequence: title page, abstract, keywords, text (body of manuscript), and list of references. Please ensure that this document is free of any identification of the author(s) and their affiliation(s).

  1. Title page: The title page of each manuscript should include the title of the manuscript, limited to 75 characters in length. Titles should be descriptive and summarize the most important point(s) of the manuscript. Should the title be longer than 50 characters, a short title (or running head) of maximum 70 characters also needs to be provided.
  2. Abstract & keywords: The page following the title page should include (a) the title of the manuscript; (b) a brief, single paragraph abstract of a maximum of 150 words succinctly describing the article; and (c) between five to seven Keywords chosen should capture the essence of the paper as these will be used as an electronic index of the paper. List the keywords in decreasing order below the abstract. Please ensure that abstracts are free of any identification of the author(s), affiliations and acknowledgements. Preferably do not include abbreviations or references in your abstract, unless essential.
  • Body: The body of the article should start on a new page following the abstract and keywords.
  1. List of references: References in the text should appear as explained in section 7. The list of references should be on a separate page at the end of the body of the article and emphasis should be placed on more recent publications. It is the responsibility of the author(s) to verify the accuracy of all references.

When referring to figures and tables, each figure and/or table should be mentioned in the text in bold typeface and numbered consecutively.

Each figure should have a unique caption (outside and not inside the text box containing the figure) and should be numbered consecutively in bold typeface, e.g. FIGURE 1: Occupancy rates, 2001.

Tables used should be self-explanatory and concise, and should not duplicate material presented in the text. Tables should include labels and explanatory notes sufficient to permit readers to understand them without reference to the text. Each table should be numbered consecutively in bold typeface, e.g. TABLE 1: Percentage growth in GDP, 2001 - 2005.

All figures and tables should be rendered clearly (in black-and-white only) so as to yield attractive, readable copies.

Acknowledge the source below a table or figure. If created by the author(s), please indicate as such.

When using mathematical expressions (e.g. formulae) in the manuscript, these should be typed exactly as they should appear in print. Mathematical expression should be numbered and these appear in parentheses (bold typeface) flush with the right margin. (Also refer to the section on the layout of manuscripts')

Maps should contain essential information only and be as clear as possible. Details and features should not be cramped or too small. Use only high resolution *.jpeg or *.tiff files.


Manuscripts written in only English should not exceed twenty-five (25) pages, including the abstract and keywords list, tables, figures and references. Manuscripts longer than 25 pages will be returned to the author for revision. In exceptional cases, and at the Managing Editor’s discretion, longer articles will be considered if they make an original or major 6. 6. 6.     

  2. Abbreviations - please keep the use of abbreviations to a minimum. Abbreviations must be explained when they first appear, after which they may be used without an explanation. The normal language rules pertaining to abbreviations apply, but no full stops are used. If an organization’s name appears only once in the document, there is no need to give the abbreviation or acronym.
  3. Automatic numbering - please do not use any automatic numbering or links. (Also see section headings)
  • Capital letters - use lower case as far as possible (e.g. parliament, government, state, president, director-general, regional council), except in specific, direct references to specific people. Use lower case for the first letter of a generic ethnic group (e.g. black, white, coloured) but upper case for the first letter of a group named according to country (e.g. African, Indian, Chinese, Swedish).
  1. Dates - Write dates as 20 July 2005. Not as 20th, 2nd, etc.
  2. End notes and footnotes - The use of end/footnotes are not permitted and the manuscript will be returned to the author(s) for revision.
  3. Equations - All mathematical and statistical equations need to be typed using the built-in equation editor in Microsoft® Office Word 2007 or later. Authors should furthermore also note that equation variables referred to in the text should also be set using the same equation editor. Should mathematical or statistical equations be set as ordinary text, the editorial staff of the Journal cannot accept responsibility should any of these be set incorrectly.
  • Font - submit manuscripts in 12pt Times New Roman or Arial, 1.5-line spacing.
  • Use of bold and italics - Do not use italics, underlining or bold to emphasize points. Rather achieve the required emphasis with an effective style of writing. Note that common Latin and French terms are not italicised. For example: et al., in situ, per capita, inter alia, vis-d-vis, laissez faire. Words and phrases from other languages, e.g. isiZulu, German, are italicised. Please supply a translation of non-English words and phrases and state what language they are, e.g. kgosi (chief, Tswana).
  1. Headers and footers - manuscripts submitted should not include a running header or footer. To ensure anonymity and facilitate a blind review process, the name of the author(s) should not appear anywhere in the manuscript document.
  2. Justification - use full justification in manuscripts.
  3. Lists - Use bullets for lists and not dashes, asterisks or letters of the alphabet.
  • Numbers - use a space, not a comma, to indicate tens of thousands etc., e.g. 10 000. Write thousands without a space, e.g. 1000, except in tables, where the space is needed to get the alignment right. For decimals use the decimal point, not comma, e.g. 3.85.
  • Page numbers - Page numbers should be inserted at the bottom of each page of the manuscript.
  • Paragraphing - Please do not use pre-formatted paragraphing or automatic numbering.
  1. Percentages - Use the % sign and not ‘percent’ or ‘per cent’. This applies to the text as well as the tables and figures. Use percentages appropriately. If your sample size is small (especially if it is less than 100 items) round off percentages to the nearest whole number. For small data sets, and in a non-technical context, strict mathematical accuracy is not required. In the text, readability is important. Using approximate percentages or even fractions to sum up your findings is therefore acceptable.
  • Quote marks - Use single quote marks. Use double quote marks only for quotations within quotations. For long quotations (‘long’ generally means longer than one sentence), indent the text in a separate paragraph (using a smaller font size) and omit the quote marks.
  • Section headings - Number the sections of your paper, beginning with INTRODUCTION. Please number the sections manually and not with the auto numbering function. All headings are in sentence case, bold (and italics for level-3 headings), and indented by way of tab-spacing e.g.
    • Development of the framework
      • Elements of the framework
  1. Spacing between sentences — make a single space after a full stop, not a double space. There should be no more than one space at any point in the document.
  2. Spelling— please use English UK spelling when preparing manuscripts, for example behaviour, not behavior and organization, not Please note that in the case of a title of a book or an article or a direct quotation one should “copy” the words exactly as in the original.
  • Sources — Cite only sources that are relevant to your discussion. Acknowledge all sources of ideas, statements, tables, graphs, etc. that are not your own. Where you use the exact wording from a source, you must make this clear by placing the quotation in quote marks or indenting it if it is a long quotation.
  2. Add a list of references at the end of your article. Note that ‘references’ means a list of the sources you have actually cited in your article.
  3. Please ensure that all the sources you cite are listed and that all the sources you list are cited.
  • Use the Harvard system of referencing, i.e. citations give the author’s name and the year of publication.
  1. All statements, opinions, conclusions, etc. taken from another author’s work should be cited, whether the work is directly quoted, paraphrased or summarized. Direct quotations from publications should be avoided and are only permissible in exceptional circumstances when the specific quotation is so succinct and vivid that the text can be materially enhanced by the quotation.

7.1 In-text citations/references

  1. References should be inserted in the text by indicating in brackets the name of the author(s) and the year of publication of the quotation, e.g.

... Candy (2005) states that ...


... for these purposes (Candy, 2005).

  1. If reference is made to a specific page (as a result of a quotation), a colon follows the year of publication (no spaces), followed by the page number (again, no spaces), e.g.

... Candy (2005:214) states that ...


... for these purposes (Candy, 2005:214).

iii. If the specific author has more than one publication in any one year, the articles are distinguished alphabetically by inserting the letters a, b, etc. after the year of publication, e.g.

... Candy (2005a:214) states that ...

  1. In referring to a work by three or more authors, all the relevant names have to be furnished in the first reference to the work in the text, e.g.

... of the authority (Riesman, Denney & Glazer, 2008).

  1. In later references to this work, only the first author’s name is stated, and the abbreviation ‘et al.’ is used, e.g.

... the modern Western man (Riesman et al., 2008:40).

  • List of references
  1. The reference list is not subdivided into sections for books, journals, papers, etc.
  2. In the case of articles in academic journals, details of each article should appear in the reference list.
  • There are no spaces between the initials of an author should the author have more than one initial.

Below are examples of the most common types of references used:

  1. Book

Carlton, D.W. & Perloff, J.F. (2005). Modern Industrial Organization, 4h edition. Boston: Addison-Wesley.

Olson, O.J., Guthrie, J. & Humphrey, C. (eds.) (1998). Global Warning: Debating International Developments in New Pubic Financial Management. Oslo: Cappelen.

  1. Chapter in a book

Sunley, P. (2003). Urban and Regional Growth. In Sheppard, E. & Barnes, T.J. (eds.) A Companion to Economic Geography. Oxford: Blackwell (pp. 189-201).

  1. Journal article

Arthur, W.B. (1996). Increasing returns and the new world of business. Harvard Business Review, 74(4), pp. 100-109.

Vandemaele, S.N., Vergauwen, P. & Smits, A.J. (2005). Intellectual capital disclosure in the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 6(3), pp. 417-426.

  1. Conference paper

Delgado, C.L. & Siamwalla, A. (1997). Diversification in developing countries.Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference of Agricultural Economists, 10-16 August, Sacramento, California.

  1. Working paper

Helmsing, A.H.J. (1999). Flexible specialisation, clusters and industrial districts and ‘second' and ‘third generations' regional policies. Institute of Social Studies, The Hague. (Working paper series no. 305).

  1. Official document

National Department of Agriculture (NDA). (2001). The Strategic Plan for South African Agriculture. Pretoria: Government Printer.

Industrial Development Corporation (IDC). (2001). Industrial development framework. Analytical document. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Prepared by IDC for Ministry of Planning and Economic Development. Sandton: Industrial Development Corporation.

  1. Newspaper or magazine article

Booth, J. (2004). Blair plans annual UK-China summit. Guardian, 11 May, p. 6.

Or, if the author is unknown:

The Economist, 2005. Special report: Congo, Africa’s unmended heart, 11-17 June, pp. 5-7.

  1. Thesis/dissertation

Kleynhans, E.P.J. (2003). The competitive platform for industrial development in South Africa. Unpublished PhD thesis. Potchefstroom: Potchefstroom University.

  1. Electronic text (Please note that website references must include the date you last accessed the site. This is because websites can change, and even disappear. The date of access certifies that the source was there, in the form you cited, at that particular date.)

Langus, G. & Motta, M. (2007). The effect of antitrust investigations and fines on a firms valuation. European University Institute Florence. [Online] Available: 2007REV.pdf. (Accessed 24 August 2010).

South Africa. (2001). Housing Atlas: Intentions of the Housing Atlas (2001-2002). [Online] Available: (Accessed 25 October 2007).

  1. For all foreign-language sources, an English translation of a title is needed. This follows the original title and is enclosed in brackets (not parentheses), without italics or quotation marks:

Chu Ching & Long Zhi. (1983). The vicissitudes of the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca (David). [In Chinese.] Acta Zoologica Sinica, 20(1), pp. 191-200.

Pirumova, N.M. (1977). Zemskoe Hberal’noe dvizhenie: Sotsia’nye korniIevoliutsiia do nachalaXX veka [The zemstvo liberal movement: Its social roots and evolution to the beginning of the twentieth century]. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo “Nauka.”